Jim's Blog

Venus Transit 2012

posted Jun 6, 2012, 1:15 PM by James Roe

My "new" solar scope featuring my old (very) 3-in refractor outfitted with a Sun Funnel acquitted itself well during the transit of Venus across the Sun on June 5, 2012.  Wayne C. and Thane P. joined me on my front lawn in Bourbon, Missouri for the event.  Wayne video taped the event through my ETX-125 and Thane set up a double stacked PST, a 5-in Refractor with full aperture filter and a gigantic projection scheme that put a 12-in dia image some 80 feet away.  In addition to Yvonne, Marlene and Nancy, we were joined by seven "locals" who came by to witness a once-in-a-lifetime event.

I used a point and shoot camera to image the screen of the Sun Funnel.    See for yourself some selected images.  Click on images to see larger version.

 The first notch was delicate but definitely visible. Halfway in. Ink drop effect.

 General scene A young neighbor enjoys the view Just before Sunset, last chance to see Venus on the face of the Sun.

New Sun Scope from Old

posted May 9, 2012, 2:38 PM by James Roe

I bought my first telescope in 1964 - a three-inch f/15 refractor from Edmund Scientific for $125.  I used it until I was able to afford bigger and bigger telescopes.  I can't tell you how many times I've moved and always took that telescope along.  Many times I've thought to get rid of it but wouldn't give it away as not being worth the effort for someone to mess with and I couldn't just throw it away.  So it knocked about these last 48 years gathering dust.

When I saw the Telescope Workshop column by Gary Seronik in the June 2012 issue of Sky and Telescope (page 60) new hope sprang forth.  Gary describes a "Sun Funnel" which would be an ideal fit to my old refractor.  It would become a dedicated solar telescope ideal for public events.  So I gathered the parts and put it together and here it is!

Note the retro use of galvanized pipe fittings for the mount (turning on the threads).  The solar image is just over three inches across, easily shows sunspots and is view-able by a group.  One can even use a magnifying glass to examine the sunspots in more detail.  It's just in time for the transit of Venus on June 5. 

New observatory in Bourbon, Missouri

posted Jan 7, 2012, 8:26 AM by James Roe

A large part of the motivation to move to a 4.5 acre site near Bourbon, Missouri was to create and have my personal observatory in my back yard for convenient access.  Darker skies will help, too.  I am planning a roll off building to house my 14-in Celestron SCT.  As it will only be used with a CCD camera attached, the building will be just big enough to cover the telescope and computer system.  It will be a ongoing project that I will chronicle here as progress is made.  Stay tuned.

The first challenge was to locate the observatory.  I chose a spot on the South side of my equipment shed to be close to electricity and to get shaded from a dusk-to-dawn light in my neighbor's yard.  There are two distant D2D lights to the South that I may persuade the owner to shield but I plan to put up a privacy fence as a safeguard.  My horizon will always be higher than about 20 degrees.

The first step is to locate and build a pier to support the GEM mount for the telescope.  A concrete pier is easily constructed and quite affordable.  The pictures below tell the story quite well.

 A hole was dug and a 12-in diameter Sonotube form was placed over it.  The Sonotube was plumbed and braces installed to hold it in place.

The hole is about 18-inches deep as I don't worry much about frost heaving.  I can always re-align with the pole if needed.
 Four 80-lb bags of Quikcrete were hand mixed to fill the form. The form filled and the top leveled.

 The base for the GEM needs three 3/8-in studs to attach to the pier.  I used 10-in lengths of threaded rod which were held in place by the plywood disks. The threaded rods were oriented to have a "pretty close" N-S alignment.  The mount is adjustable for fine alignment. With the plywood jigs removed the pier is ready for the GEM mount.

 The test fit of the telescope mount is rock-solid.  The GPS in my Android phone gives the location as

+38 deg 08.045 min
-91 deg 16.178 min
+/- 13 ft
Elev 1000 ft

The next steps involve building a track system to allow the telescope shelter to move off and expose the telescope to the entire sky.

 Two rails are used, each consisting of two 2x4s on edge.  Chamfers were cut so that a V-shaped groove could center a 1/2" PVC pipe.  A total of 16 feet was chosen for the rails. The rails were mounted on 4x4 posts (2 ft long) that were sunk into the ground. Dry mix concrete was used to set the posts.  No need to mix with water, soil moisture will soon cause the cement to set.

 The rail system is complete (still missing the PVC pipe, though).  A floor has been added.  The size of the floor is 3 ft x 4 ft - ample to store the 14-inch telescope.

The next step is to build the movable superstructure.

 A simple 2x4 frame was built. Note the grooved casters (from Grainger) and the PVC pipes on which they roll. The almost-finished shelter.  It rolls off to the East but does not obscure the Eastern horizon any more than that distant tree line (about 25 deg).  Sheet siding and a corrugated plastic roofing called Ondura provide the outer covering. The telescope is a tight, but comfortable, fit inside the shelter (here shown with the gas grill cover used a supplemental protection.

The, more-or-less, completed observatory

 Note the grass and rock that has replaced the mud from the previous images!  Much more pleasant.  Note the computer beneath the "table" that serves as a dew protector for the computer and other electronics.  The computer is accessed via wi-fi by another computer in the house - no more frozen feet nor mosquito bites!  Data acquisition on an extensive list of variable stars is scripted with several hundred measurements possible on a clear night.

Bahtinov Focusing Mask

posted Aug 13, 2010, 11:03 AM by James Roe

Focusing a telescope when trying to image the Moon and/or planets can be difficult.  The Bahtinov mask is a funny looking device that makes the task more objective than trying to decide based upon the display from the camera (whether a "still" camera or video camera).  Here is a picture of a commercially available mask that gives an idea of what the thing looks like.

It is quite possible to make one's own from readily available templates on the Internet ( see http://www.focus-mask.com/Free_Templates.html ) and I did so using foam board.

To use, the mask is placed over the front of the telescope and all those slots and bars really play havoc with the images the telescope makes - but in a useful way.  The image sequence below of Altair with the mask in front of our 10-in LX-200 telescope shows the way it is used.

 Too far inside focus Just right focus Too far outside focus

In practice, the "X" pattern is more or less constant while the horizontal bar moves up and down relative to the "X" as the focus knob is turned.  When the telescope is in focus, the horizontal bar bisects the "X."  To use in Lunar/Planetary imaging, the telescope is pointed to a bright star, the mask is used to focus and then the telescope is re-oriented to the object (mask removed, of course).

Musings on Barlow Lenses and How to Use Them

posted Jun 24, 2010, 8:22 AM by James Roe

Barlow lenses are common "tools" in the amateur kit, used to increase the magnification of regular eyepieces.  The theory is relatively simple but the practical uses are sometimes not what one would expect.  To clear this up in my own mind and, possibly, help others I've scribbled these notes.

Let's consider a Newtonian optical path in which a concave mirror forms an image of a distant target field at a distance F from the surface of the mirror.  The optical path is folded to the side to make this image field accessible using a flat diagonal mirror.  Various design considerations are involved in placing this diagonal mirror but, for this discussion, let's assume the reflected real image plane is located at the tube wall of the telescope.  There is, of course, a hole cut in the tube wall so the light can get out.  It is over this hole that the focusing mechanism is placed.

Now, consider modern (ie, non-Galilean) eyepieces which are essentially positive lenses that magnify the real image created by the objective optics in a telescope (whether mirror or lens).  These eyepieces are characterized by a focal length and a focal plane.  Images (or objects) located at the focal plane can be viewed by the eye at magnified values which depend on the focal length of the eyepiece.  Eyepiece designers and manufacturers usually place an aperture in the focal plane of the eyepiece called a field stop.  In older eyepiece designs (eg, orthoscopics, Plossls, etc) this field stop in in "front" of the first element of the eyepiece (ie, in the direction from which the light is coming).  In later designs (eg, Naglers) the field stop is inside the eyepiece and not physically accessible.  What is important is that the real image to be examined must be located in the field stop and this is accomplished by moving the eyepiece back and forth along the optical path (ie, focusing).  The optical elements of an eyepiece are not floating in space but are placed in a tube of some sort and this is where differences can occur between eyepieces.  I'm not aware of any standards in the field and I'm quite sure some of my eyepieces wouldn't adhere to such a standard if it exists.  In particular, all eyepieces I've ever seen (except for some home-made ones long, long ago) are in a tube that has two diameters with a shoulder that prevents the eyepiece from sinking too far into the eyepiece tube (which is a good thing - don't want an eyepiece sliding into the telescope tube).  That shoulder, and the overall placement of the optical elements within the tube, is what determines where the field stop is located relative to the focusing tube and physical location of the focus plane of the telescope.  In most cases there is enough latitude in the in/out motion of the focus tube to bring the eyepiece into focus but it is often the case that switching eyepieces requires re-focusing because the field stop in the new eyepiece is not in the same geometrical location as the previous one.  Parfocalization is the process of aligning the physical locations of the field stops in a set of eyepieces to solve this problem.  Most manufacturers create sets (or series) of eyepieces meant to be used together that have this feature. Televue, for example, locates the field stop  some 6 mm in front of the shoulder of (most) their latest offerings so all their eyepieces are essentially parfocalized.

On to Barlows.  Barlow lenses are "negative" lenses which cause incoming light to diverge.  When placed in the path of the converging beam from the objective of a telescope, that beam is caused to converge more slowly and the focal plane is moved out farther than it was.  This produces an apparent increase in the focal length of the telescope.  Because the apparent magnification of an eyepiece is given by the simple mathematical ratio (telescope focal length/eyepiece focal length) the same eyepiece can have two different magnifications using the Barlow.  Neat.  But there are design considerations and constraints.  In effect, adding a Barlow creates a new eyepiece (and that seems to be the idea behind the Naglers and other modern eyepieces where the Barlow is built-in).  The relationship between the negative element and the "regular" eyepiece determines the overall performance and the use of the Barlow.  But the Barlow concept is a "modular" concept, ie, the user is free to mix and match the elements but the lack of standardization causes mis-understandings.

We need a little mathematics to proceed (sorry!).  There is a deceptively simple looking relationship between the location of the telescope's focal plane, the focal length of the negative element and the new location of the focal plane given by

1/f = 1/q - 1/p where

f is the focal length of the Barlow (a negative number)
p is the distance beyond the Barlow where the focal plane of the telescope would be without the presence of the Barlow, and
q is the distance beyond the Barlow where the re-imaged focal plane is located.

(I'll try to insert a little drawing here some day)

The apparent magnification of the telescope's focal length caused by the Barlow is the ration q/p.  So, if q is twice as far as p, the telescope will appear to have had it's focal length doubled.

There are some constraints.  If p  = f, then q is at infinity and there is no real image created for the "regular" eyepiece to work on (plus it would have to be located at infinity which is a long, long focus tube).  On the other hand, no "regular" eyepiece is needed.  Just put your eyeball in the path and you have a telescope!  This is the way Galilean telescopes (cheap "opera" glasses) work.  So, the lesson is the closer p is to f, the farther away q is and the greater the apparent magnification (q/p).  So, p needs to be less than f to keep things practical.  p is, of course, controlled by where the focus tube is.

On the other hand, Barlow lenses are placed in tubes also and the length of the tube (relative to the Barlow focal length) comes into play when using a "regular" eyepiece and this is where things get interesting.  Let's consider an illustrative example, the ubiquitous 2X Barlow.  To get 2X we need q/p to equal 2.  This is achieved by making p = f/2.  In this case, q comes out to be equal to f.  We could chose lots of values for f but let's just take 50 mm (negative, of course).  Thus, when the Barlow (in its tube) is placed inside our Newtonian tube wall 25 mm, the new focal plane will be 50 mm from the  Barlow element or 25 mm outside the telescope tube wall.  If we want to achieve the rated value of 2X with the aforementioned Naglers, we need to make our Barlow tube to be 56 mm long (plus any extra in front of the negative element).  If our "regular" eyepiece has a different relationship between its field stop and the shoulder, we will get a different relationship for the overall Barlow assembly.

Suppose the field stop is farther from the negative element thereby increasing q.  If we have the room to do so, we could move the whole assembly deeper into the telescope tube thereby increasing p as well.  When we find a good focus (which we should be able to do) we will be ok, but at a higher magnification than we expected.  The reverse is true if the field stop is closer to the negative element, we should be able to achieve focus but at a lower magnification than 2X.  We could get a variable magnification if we have room to slide the eyepiece into or out of the Barlow tube.

Lunar Imaging

posted Jun 21, 2010, 1:29 PM by James Roe

More folks in ASEM are imaging the Moon and reporting their results on their own pages here on the ASEM site.  I thought I would join in.  I have an Orion StarShoot camera I bought some years ago but was never satisfied with but I thought I would try it with the Craterlet software.  It was a hot, muggy night last night (June 20, 2010 - mid-Summer night) when I went out to Broemmelsiek Park.  The Moon was about first quarter and almost due South in the sky at Sunset.  I first tried the 16-in Jones-Bird telescope but the camera could not reach focus - maybe with a Barlow?  Next I went into the 10-in LX-200 shelter and there was no problem reaching focus there.  Still learning my away around the camera and control software so I took some 30 second video sequences of the Plato-Alpine Valley region and the Straight Wall (Rupus Recta).  I processed the Straight Wall sequence in AVIStack and I'm sure I could use some practice wringing the most details from the image, but here it is anyway.  There are lots of details if you study it a bit with a good Lunar map (I use the Virtual Moon Atlas).  Catena Davy is visible in the lower left of the image.

Below is another shot I took on the same evening with the same equipment and processed the same.  This time it is the crater Plato, the Lunar Alps and the Alpine Valley.

Solar Viewing - March 28, 2010

posted Mar 28, 2010, 3:44 PM by James Roe

The Sun is becoming more and more active as the next sunspot maximum heats up.  Today I used the 60mm H alpha telescope to view a couple of sunspot groups and a spectacular prominence on the limb.  Below is a stacked image of some 868 frames taken with a ToUcam using K3CCDtools and processed with Registax.

Below are some images of my setup.  Note the elegant means to view the laptop screen in the bright sunlight!

EW Boo - An Eclipsing Binary Star

posted Jan 28, 2010, 5:46 PM by James Roe

In the summer of 2008, Dr. Matthew Beaky of Truman State University, Kirksville, MO asked me to make some measurements on the star known as EW Boo (HIP 73612, V=10.27 m).  The star had been detected by the Hipparcos satellite to be an eclipsing binary of the Algol type.  It also was reported to be of spectral class A0 which stars often show pulsations similar to delta Scuti type stars.  An Internet literature search produced several timings of the primary eclipse minimum with an orbital period of some 0.906336 days (21.75 hours) but no complete light curve could be found.  Accordingly, I set out to measure the changes in brightness of this star in V, B and Ic bands at the ASEM observatory in Moscow Mills, Missouri.  I measured several minima and confirmed the orbital period to a difference of less than 0.00001 day (0.7 seconds).  I also measured a (more or less) compete light curve as represented below by a phase diagram.

The red crosses are my measured data (some 2,858 points over several weeks).  The blue dots are calculated values from a model discussed below.  The secondary minimum is well shown but of more interest is the definite oscillation in the light curve between 0.10 and 0.30 phase.  These appear to be classic delta Scuti oscillations.  As this phase curve is a composite of many detached light curves over several weeks, that the oscillations didn't get thoroughly mixed up and unrecognizable suggests that the oscillations are in phase with the orbital parameters.

The light curve was modeled using Binary Maker 3 with some data from a recently discovered paper by Soydugan, et al, (1) in which the temperature of the primary star was reported to by 8179 K (spectral type A6V).  They also indicated a mass ratio of 0.217.  I came up with a orbital tilt angle to our line of sight at some 75 deg  (partial eclipses) and a temperature for the smaller star of some 5000K.  The calculated model is shown below.

Note that the smaller star is stretched out of spherical by the gravity of the much larger star.

The model also predicts the relative radial velocities for the two stars and some spectrographic data would help with refining the model and determining some actual physical dimensions for the system.

(1) "The preliminary results of the eclipsing binary system EW Boo with a delta Scuti component", Comm. in Asteroseismology, Vol. 157, 2008, Wroclaw HELAS Workshop 2008, by E. Soydugan, et al.

Modeling an Eclipsing Binary Star

posted Jan 24, 2010, 11:00 AM by James Roe

While observing a star known as LPH128 (a high mass xray binary), I learned that a star nearby had been noticed to be a variable but had not been characterized very well at all, so I decided to do double duty by moving LPH128 over a bit in my field of view to bring the suspected variable into the same field.  The star, known as GSC 3973-1124 is located at 22h09m18s and +54 d37m20s in the northern constellation of Cephus.  It is about 10th magnitude in a V filter.  During my first night of observing this star I detected a minimum of about 0.3 mag depth - nice and encouraging.  The next night I detected another minimum almost exactly 24 hours later.  OH NO - a period near one day would mean it might take a long time to get the complete light curve.  Fortunately, a friend in Cyprus offered to look at the star and he also got a minimum just a few hours earlier than mine.  Wow.  To make the story shorter, it turns out the star has a period of 0.4904225 days (11.77 hours) with a minimum (primary or secondary) every 5.39 hours.

The period of such an object is usually defined and refined by oberving successive minima but the overall shape of the light curve is studied with a phase plot.  In effect, data widely scattered in time is "folded" to represent just one cycle of the light curve.  Below is the phase curve I obtained for this object using the period mentioned above.

The small red crosses are the actual measured points while the blue dots are from a model of what's going on (discussed below).  Much can be noted by study of this curve.  In particular, the continually varying light from the star  suggests the stars are very close to each other and not undergoing total eclipses.  That the depth of the first minimum (at Phase = 0.0) is somewhat deeper than the secondary minimum at Phase 0.50 suggests one star is probably hotter than the other (hotter stars are brighter).

There is a wonderful tool called Binary Maker that can be used to estimate the properties of these two stars.  While there are some guides from the light curve (ie, one star appears to be hotter than the other, both stars are probably not spherical (filled their Roche lobes), etc), the process is essentially trial and error by comparing predicted results to the actual data.  The predicted results shown above as the blue dots came from the following assumptions.  The stars have a mass ratio of 0.4 (ie, the smaller star is 0.4x as heavy as the bigger star), the stars atmospheres are in contact, the bigger star is about 270 deg C hotter than the smaller star and we are viewing it from about 55 deg above its equatorial plane.  There are other parameters such as limb darkening and reflection coefficients that are taken from detailed studies of such systems.  The model of the system is shown below.

The two outer crosses mark the centers of mass of the two stars while the center cross mark shows the barycenter for the system about which both stars rotate.  The smaller red circle shows the path of the center of the larger star and the larger dotted circle shows the path of the center of the smaller star.  We can also calculate the relative radial motions of the two stars as shown below.

If we can get someone to measure the actual radial velocities (using a spectroscope), we can determing the actual orbital dimensions of the pair and their masses.  All in all, a fun exercise.

Asteroid Discoveries

posted Aug 7, 2009, 2:28 PM by James Roe

DISCSTATUS V5.2a                              Report prepared 2009 Aug. 7

Status Report for J. M. Roe

Number of designations found =     134

Count    Designation         Principal     Orbit                                Oppns
    1 : 1998 AE    /96PD9 :  (29524) * :  Numbered object
    2 : 1998 DU    NEWGUY :  (15964) *N:  Numbered object
    3 : 1998 DU7   NEWGU2 :  (15965) *N:  Numbered object
    4 : 1998 DD24  NUGUY3 :  (42608) * :  Numbered object
    5 : 1998 FY2   /93F18 :  (16563)   :  Numbered object
    6 : 1998 GA    NUGUY  :  (17823) *N:  Numbered object
    7 : 1999 CK1   990207 :  (32073)   :  Numbered object
    8 : 1999 CS2   99020B : (101650)   :  Numbered object
    9 : 1999 CW2   99020D :  (31444) * :  Numbered object
   10 : 1999 CB3   99020C : 2006 BX12  :  5 opps, 1992-2008 (MPO151023)        20100519
   11 : 1999 CO4   99020F :  (53160) * :  Numbered object
   12 : 1999 CP158 /99C02S: (101580)   :  Numbered object
   13 : 1999 GQ2   99040A :  (80010) * :  Numbered object
   14 : 1999 GR2   99040B :  (59420) * :  Numbered object
   15 : 1999 GH4   99040D :  (31604) * :  Numbered object
   16 : 1999 KH4   99050B :  (96712) * :  Numbered object
   17 : 1999 KJ4   99050C :  (33121)   :  Numbered object
   18 : 1999 KK4   99050D :  (18024) *N:  Numbered object
   19 : 1999 KL4   99050E :  (37834)   :  Numbered object
   20 : 1999 KY4   99050A :  (25331) *N:  Numbered object
   21 : 1999 KS5   99050F :  (56280) *N:  Numbered object
   22 : 1999 KC19  /99K04L:            :  None
   23 : 1999 UG4   99100A :  (25388) * :  Numbered object
   24 : 1999 UH4   99100B : (159428) * :  Numbered object
   25 : 1999 VG    99110A :  (66843) *N:  Numbered object
   26 : 1999 VL    99110B : (175858) * :  Numbered object
   27 : 1999 VM    99110C :  (43016) * :  Numbered object
   28 : 1999 VY1   99110E : (102593) * :  Numbered object
   29 : 1999 VZ1   99110G :  (49701) * :  Numbered object
   30 : 1999 VA2   99110F :  (43017) * :  Numbered object
   31 : 1999 VV19  99110K :  (14217) *N:  Numbered object
   32 : 1999 XM    99120B :  (18876) *N:  Numbered object
   33 : 1999 XS1   99120C :  (24173) *N:  Numbered object
   34 : 1999 XQ5   99120H :  (70957) * :  Numbered object
   35 : 1999 XV7   99120D : (182002) * :  Numbered object
   36 : 1999 XZ36  99120F :  (75306) * :  Numbered object
   37 : 1999 XA37  99120G :  (45071) * :  Numbered object
   38 : 1999 XQ104 99120I :  (47518)   :  Numbered object
   39 : 1999 XQ105 99120P :  (23081) * :  Numbered object
   40 : 1999 XR105 99120K : (103017) * :  Numbered object
   41 : 1999 XP262 /99XA4Q:            :  None
   42 : 2000 AA    00A00A :  (80451) *N:  Numbered object
   43 : 2000 AV4   00A00C :  (24315) * :  Numbered object
   44 : 2000 AV93  00A00E : (137874) * :  Numbered object
   45 : 2000 AO205 00A00H :  (16191) *N:  Numbered object
   46 : 2000 CP33  00B00C : (103639) * :  Numbered object
   47 : 2000 CK77  00B00L :  (66191)   :  Numbered object
   48 : 2000 CY80  00B00M :  (30014) * :  Numbered object
   49 : 2000 CG97  00B00P :  (67200) * :  Numbered object
   50 : 2000 CH97  00B00Q :  (27340) * :  Numbered object
   51 : 2000 CO97  00B00T :  (97504) * :  Numbered object
   52 : 2000 CP97  00B00R :  (26860)   :  Numbered object
   53 : 2000 CM101 00B00V : (168634) * :  Numbered object
   54 : 2000 DQ2   00B00X :  (28514) * :  Numbered object
   55 : 2000 DY6   00C00A :  (50417) * :  Numbered object
   56 : 2000 DZ6   00C00C : (103781) * :  Numbered object
   57 : 2000 DA7   00C00B :  (15115) *N:  Numbered object
   58 : 2000 DB7   00C00D :  (67205) * :  Numbered object
   59 : 2000 EA    00C00E : (104031) * :  Numbered object
   60 : 2000 EC    00C00H :  (43696)   :  Numbered object
   61 : 2000 EP    00C00J :  (79035)   :  Numbered object
   62 : 2000 FY2   00C00V :  (30103) * :  Numbered object
   63 : 2000 UJ15  00100B : 2000 UJ15  :  3 opps, 2000-2009 (MPO155919)        20100524
   64 : 2000 UK15  00100C : (138818) * :  Numbered object
   65 : 2000 UW16  00100E :  (58883)   :  Numbered object
   66 : 2000 UX16  00100D : (215217) * :  Numbered object
   67 : 2000 UY16  00100F :  (41687) * :  Numbered object
   68 : 2000 US19  00100G : 2000 US19  :  4 opps, 2000-2008 (MPO147154)        20100211
   69 : 2000 UQ113 /00U16W: 2000 VF3   :  5 opps, 2000-2008 (MPO141760)        20091228
   70 : 2000 VF3   00110A : 2000 VF3   :  5 opps, 2000-2008 (MPO141760)        20091228
   71 : 2000 WL9   00110G : 2000 VD44  :  33-day arc (MPO 10997)
   72 : 2000 WB68  00110P : 2000 WB68  :  3 opps, 1996-2008 (MPO159066)        20100713
   73 : 2000 WS192 /00W09L:            :  None
   74 : 2000 XF    00120A :  (41941) * :  Numbered object
   75 : 2000 YG8   00120B : (106836) * :  Numbered object
   76 : 2000 YH8   00120C : 2000 YH8   :  2 opps, 2000-2005 (MPO100001)        20090706 20100924
   77 : 2000 YQ12  00120E :  (68018) * :  Numbered object
   78 : 2000 YQ14  00120D : (106844) * :  Numbered object
   79 : 2000 YH17  00120J : (173551) * :  Numbered object
   80 : 2001 AF3   01010A :  (38502)   :  Numbered object
   81 : 2001 AT19  01010C : 2004 RM230 :  5 opps, 1999-2007 (MPO119628)        20091102
   82 : 2001 AU19  01010E : (190670) * :  Numbered object
   83 : 2001 AL45  01010M :            :  20-day arc (MPO  9920)
   84 : 2001 BK11  01010T :            :  None
   85 : 2001 BU13  01010V :  (94195) * :  Numbered object
   86 : 2001 BV13  01010W : (134936) * :  Numbered object
   87 : 2001 BM35  01010Y :  (94213) * :  Numbered object
   88 : 2001 BO38  01010Z :  (43483) * :  Numbered object
   89 : 2001 BJ42  0101AB : (107213) * :  Numbered object
   90 : 2001 BQ50  0101AF :  (72323) * :  Numbered object
   91 : 2001 BU57  0101AG :  (69764)   :  Numbered object
   92 : 2001 BV57  0101AJ : 2001 BV57  :  3 opps, 2001-2009 (MPO155922)        20100426
   93 : 2001 BW57  0101AK : (189619) * :  Numbered object
   94 : 2001 BW61  0101AL :  (69174)   :  Numbered object
   95 : 2001 CU9   01020B :  (79016)   :  Numbered object
   96 : 2001 CV9   01020C : (131153) * :  Numbered object
   97 : 2001 CW9   01020D :  (98883)   :  Numbered object
   98 : 2001 CY9   01020E : (107311) * :  Numbered object
   99 : 2001 CF21  /01C09W:  (40990)   :  Numbered object
  100 : 2001 CK31  01020F : 2001 CK31  :  2 opps, 2001-2006 (MPO 93919)        20090708 20100928
  101 : 2001 CG32  01020H : 2006 FC50  :  5 opps, 1999-2008 (MPO147403)        20100103
  102 : 2001 CW35  01020K :  (77037) * :  Numbered object
  103 : 2001 DH9   01020L : (182234) * :  Numbered object
  104 : 2001 DJ9   01020M : 2001 DJ9   :  6 opps, 1999-2009 (MPO159662)        20090813
  105 : 2001 DS14  01020P :  (77059) * :  Numbered object
  106 : 2001 DT14  01020Q :  (98972) * :  Numbered object
  107 : 2001 ER    01030B : (131236) * :  Numbered object
  108 : 2001 ES    01030A :  (72546) * :  Numbered object
  109 : 2001 WJ    01110B :  (91299)   :  Numbered object
  110 : 2001 XW4   01120A : (118388)   :  Numbered object
  111 : 2001 XM16  /00Q47S: (119634) * :  Numbered object
  112 : 2001 XO31  01120C :  (64622) * :  Numbered object
  113 : 2001 YA    01120H : (131699) * :  Numbered object
  114 : 2001 YB    01120F : (194731) * :  Numbered object
  115 : 2001 YC    01120I : (176499) * :  Numbered object
  116 : 2001 YO    01120G : (160932) * :  Numbered object
  117 : 2001 YP    01120J : (190995) * :  Numbered object
  118 : 2002 AU    02010A : (203470) * :  Numbered object
  119 : 2002 AW4   02010J :  (99392) * :  Numbered object
  120 : 2002 AX4   02010K : 2002 AX4   :  3 opps, 2002-2007 (MPO119563)        20090921
  121 : 2002 AD5   02010D :  (72928) * :  Numbered object
  122 : 2002 AE5   02010F : (141340) * :  Numbered object
  123 : 2002 AF5   02010E :            :  77-day arc (MPO 30603)               20100618
  124 : 2002 AN6   02010H : (165993) * :  Numbered object
  125 : 2002 AJ9   02010L : (200886) * :  Numbered object
  126 : 2002 AU26  02010G : (160322)   :  Numbered object
  127 : 2002 AZ32  02010N : (141358) * :  Numbered object
  128 : 2002 BA    02010P : (158425) * :  Numbered object
  129 : 2002 BB    02010R : (146874) * :  Numbered object
  130 : 2002 CQ4   02020A : 2002 CQ4   :  4 opps, 2002-2007 (MPO120759)        20091229
  131 : 2002 CL11  02020B : 2002 CL11  :  4 opps, 2000-2008 (MPO147199)        20100202
  132 : 2002 CF117 02020C : (166084) * :  Numbered object
  133 : 2002 DR    02020D :  (95460) * :  Numbered object
  134 : 2002 DG1   02020E : 2002 DG1   :  3 opps, 2002-2008 (MPO147206)        20100120

This observer has discovered    90 numbered objects
   13 of the numbered objects have been named
  111 of the discoveries are identified with numbered minor planets
   16 of the discoveries are involved in multiple-apparition orbits
   12 of the discoveries are principal designations
    2 of the one-opposition objects have >= 30-day arc orbits
    1 of the one-opposition objects has a < 30-day arc orbit
    4 of the one-opposition objects have no orbit

-- End of report


For each provisionally-designated object that you have discovered the
following information is displayed:

 1) a monotonically-increasing count that has no significance other
   than to indicate the order in this list.

 2) the provisional designation followed by the observer-assigned
   temporary designation.  Occasionally the temporary designation
   will begin with '/' (e.g., /95Y03R) indicating that the observations
   were originally reported as belonging to some known object (in the
   example, 1995 YR3).

 3) the principal designation if the object is involved in a
   double designation or identification.  When the principal designation
   is a numbered object, the designation is followed by an asterisk
   if you are credited with the discovery of that numbered object.  The
   asterisk is followed by 'N' if the object has been named.

 4) details on the latest orbit available for the object.  Most references
   will be to the MPCs.  References that begin with 'E' refer to MPECs.

This list is intended to be complete through the latest batch of MPCs,
supplemented with any Daily Orbit Update MPECs.

--End of notes

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